Інформація призначена тільки для фахівців сфери охорони здоров'я, осіб,
які мають вищу або середню спеціальну медичну освіту.

Підтвердіть, що Ви є фахівцем у сфері охорони здоров'я.



СІМЕЙНІ ЛІКАРІ ТА ТЕРАПЕВТИ

НЕВРОЛОГИ, НЕЙРОХІРУРГИ, ЛІКАРІ ЗАГАЛЬНОЇ ПРАКТИКИ, СІМЕЙНІ ЛІКАРІ

КАРДІОЛОГИ, СІМЕЙНІ ЛІКАРІ, РЕВМАТОЛОГИ, НЕВРОЛОГИ, ЕНДОКРИНОЛОГИ

СТОМАТОЛОГИ

ІНФЕКЦІОНІСТИ, СІМЕЙНІ ЛІКАРІ, ПЕДІАТРИ, ГАСТРОЕНТЕРОЛОГИ, ГЕПАТОЛОГИ

ТРАВМАТОЛОГИ

ОНКОЛОГИ, (ОНКО-ГЕМАТОЛОГИ, ХІМІОТЕРАПЕВТИ, МАМОЛОГИ, ОНКО-ХІРУРГИ)

ЕНДОКРИНОЛОГИ, СІМЕЙНІ ЛІКАРІ, ПЕДІАТРИ, КАРДІОЛОГИ ТА ІНШІ СПЕЦІАЛІСТИ

ПЕДІАТРИ ТА СІМЕЙНІ ЛІКАРІ

АНЕСТЕЗІОЛОГИ, ХІРУРГИ

"Kidneys" Том 10, №3, 2021

Back to issue

Future of Solid Organ Transplantation: Organ-Specific Tolerance

Authors: Yusuf Ercin Sonmez
Istambul, Turkey

Categories: Nephrology

Sections: Specialist manual

print version


Summary

Трансплантація між двома особами, які не є генетично ідентичними, називається алотрансплантацією. Донорські органи та тканини можуть бути отримані від живих людей або від людей, які померли через серйозну травму мозку або порушення кровообігу. Алотрансплантація може призвести до процесу відторгнення, коли імунна система реципієнта атакує чужорідний донорський орган або тканину та руйнує їх. Реципієнту може знадобитися приймати імуносупресивні ліки протягом усього життя, щоб зменшити ризик відторгнення донорського органа. Як правило, медикаментозно індукована імуносупресія проводиться для запобігання відторгненню трансплантата. Побічні ефекти, пов’язані з цими препаратами, та ризики довготривалої імуносупресії представляють для клініциста серйозну проблему. Імунна толерантність, або імунологічна толерантність, або імунотолерантність, — це стан несприйнятливості імунної системи до впливу речовин або тканин, що здатні викликати імунну відповідь у даному організмі. Їй присвячена дана стаття.

Трансплантация между двумя лицами, которые не являются генетически идентичными, называется аллотрансплантацией. Донорские органы и ткани могут быть от живых людей или людей, умерших из-за серьезной черепно-мозговой травмы или нарушения кровообращения. Аллотрансплантация может вызвать процесс отторжения, когда иммунная система реципиента атакует чужеродный донорский орган или ткань и разрушает их. Реципиенту может потребоваться принимать иммуносупрессивные средства на протяжении всей жизни, чтобы снизить риск отторжения донорского органа. Как правило, индуцированная иммуносупрессия назначается, чтобы не дать организму отторгнуть трансплантат. Неблагоприятные эффекты, связанные с этим назначением иммунодепресантов, и риски долгосрочной иммуносупрессии представляют для клиницистов серьезную проблему. Иммунная толерантность, или иммунологическая толерантность, или иммунотолерантность, — это состояние невосприимчивости иммунной системы к веществам или тканям, которые способны вызывать иммунный ответ в данном организме. Ей посвящена данная статья.

A transplant between two people who are not genetically identical is called an allotransplant and the process is called allotransplantation. Donor organs and tissues can be from people who are living, or people who have died because of a significant brain injury or lack of circulation. Allotransplantation can create a rejection process where the immune system of the recipient attacks the foreign donor organ or tissue and destroys it. The recipient may need to take immunosuppressive medication for the rest of their life to reduce the risk of rejection of the donated organ. In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant. The adverse effects associated with these agents and the risks of long-term immunosuppression present a number of challenges for the clinician. Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in a given organism.


Keywords

трансплантація органів; імуносупресивна терапія; відторгнення; імунна толерантність; регуляторні клітини; химеризм; огляд

трансплантация органов; иммуносупрессивная терапия; отторжение; иммунная толерантность; регуляторные клетки; химеризм; обзор

organ transplantation; immunosuppressive therapy; rejection; immune tolerance; regulatory cells; chimerism; review


For the full article you need to subscribe to the magazine.


Bibliography

1. Fishman J.A. Infection in solid-organ transplant recipients. The New England journal of medicine. 2007 Dec 20. 357(25). 2601-14. 
2. Kasiske B.L., Snyder J.J., Gilbertson D.T., Wang C. Cancer after kidney transplantation in the United States. American journal of transplantation: official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. 2004 Jun. 4(6). 905-13. 
3. Ojo A.O., Held P.J., Port F.K., Wolfe R.A., Leichtman A.B., Young E.W. et al. Chronic renal failure after transplantation of a nonrenal organ. The New England journal of medicine. 2003 Sep 4. 349(10). 931-40. 
4. Li L., Wozniak L.J., Rodder S., Heish S., Talisetti A., Wang Q., Esquivel C., Cox K., Chen R., Mcdiarmid S.V., Sarwal M.M. A common peripheral blood gene set for diagnosis of operational tolerance in pediatric and adult liver transplantation. Am. J. Transplant. 2012. 12. 1218-1228.
5. Bohne F., Martinez-Llordella M., Lozano J.J. et al. Intra-graft expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis predicts the development of operational tolerance in human liver transplantation. J. Clin. Invest. 2012. 122. 368-382.
6. Sagoo P., Perucha E., Sawitzki B. et al. Development of a cross-platform biomarker signature to detect renal transplant tolerance in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 2010. 120. 1848-1861.
7. Ashton-Chess J., Giral M., Brouard S., Soulillou J.P. Spontaneous operational tolerance after immunosuppressive drug withdrawal in clinical renal allotransplantation. Transplantation. 2007. 84. 1215-1219.
8. Orlando G., Hematti P., Stratta R.J., Burke G.W. III, Di Cocco P., Pisani F., Soker S., Wood K. Clinical operational tolerance after renal transplantation: current status and future challenges. Ann. Surg. 2010. 252. 915-928.
9. Goldman M., Wood K. Transplantation research: will we ever reach the holy grail? Transplantation. 2009 May 15. 87(suppl. 9). S99-100. 
10. Owen R.D. Immunogenetic consequences of vascular anastomoses between bovine twins. Science. 1945. 102. 400-1. doi: 10.1126/science.102.2651.400.
11. Brent L. The discovery of immunologic tolerance. Hum. Immunol. 1997. 52. 75-81. doi: 10.1016/S0198-8859(96)00289-3.
12. Ge W., Jiang J., Arp J., Liu W., Garcia B., Wang H. Regulatory T-cell generation and kidney allograft tolerance induced by mesenchymal stem cells associated with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression. Transplantation. 2010. 90. 1312-20. doi: 10.1097/TP.0b013e3181fed001.
13. Collins E., Gu F., Qi M., Molano I., Ruiz P., Sun L. et al. Differential efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells based on source of origin. J. Immunol. 2014. 193. 4381-90. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1401636.
14. Qi H., Chen G., Huang Y., Si Z., Li J. Foxp3-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes liver allograft tolerance through the generation of regulatory T cells in rats. J. Transl. Med. 2015. 13. 274. doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0638-2.
15. Feng S., Ekong U.D., Lobritto S.J., Demetris A.J., Ro–berts J.P., Rosenthal P., Alonso E.M., Philogene M.C., Ikle D., Poole K.M., Bridges N.D., Turka L.A., Tchao N.K. Complete immunosuppression withdrawal and subsequent allograft function among pediatric recipients of parental living donor liver transplants. JAMA. 2012. 307. 283-293.
16. Levitsky J. Operational tolerance: past lessons and future prospects. Liver transplantation. 2011. 17. 222-232.
17. Afzali B., Lechler R.I., Hernandez-Fuentes M.P. Allorecognition and the alloresponse: clinical implications. Tissue Antigens. 2007. 69. 545-556.
18. Lamb K.E., Lodhi S., Meier-Kriesche H.U. Long-term renal allograft survival in the United States: a critical reappraisal. Am. J. Transplant. 2011. 11. 450-462.
19. Lodhi S.A., Lamb K.E., Meier-Kriesche H.U. Solid organ allograft survival improvement in the United States: the long-term does not mirror the dramatic short-term success. Am. J. Transplant. 2011. 11. 1226-1235.
20. Newell K.A., Phippard D., Turka L.A. Regulatory cells and cell signatures in clinical transplantation tolerance. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2011. 23. 655-659.
21. Francis R.S., Feng G., Tha-In T., Lyons I.S., Wood K.J., Bushell A. Induction of transplantation tolerance converts potential effector T cells into graft-protective regulatory T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 2011. 41. 726-738.
22. Feng G., Wood K.J., Bushell A. Interferon-gamma conditioning ex vivo generates CD25+CD62L+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells that prevent allograft rejection: potential avenues for cellular therapy. Transplantation. 2008. 86. 578-589.
23. Page E., Kwun J., Oh B., Knechtle S. Lymphodepletional strategies in transplantation. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med. 2013. 3. pii: a015511.
24. Groux H., O’Garra A., Bigler M., Rouleau M., Antonenko S., de Vries J.E., Roncarolo M.G. A CD4+ T-cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T-cell responses and prevents colitis. Nature. 1997. 389. 737-742.
25. Faria A.M., Weiner H.L. Oral tolerance. Immunol. Rev. 2005. 206. 232-259.
26. Vlad G., Cortesini R., Suciu-Foca N. CD8+ T suppressor cells and the ILT3 master switch. Hum. Immunol. 2008. 69. 681-686.
27. Zhang Z.X., Yang L., Young K.J., DuTemple B., Zhang L. Identification of a previously unknown antigen-specific regulatory T cell and its mechanism of suppression. Nat. Med. 2000. 6. 782-789.
28. Seino K.I., Fukao K., Muramoto K., Yanagisawa K., Takada Y., Kakuta S., Iwakura Y., Van Kaer L., Takeda K., Nakayama T., Taniguchi M., Bashuda H., Yagita H., Okumura K. Requirement. 2001.
29. Starzl T.E., Marchioro T.L., Waddell W.R. The reversal of rejection in human renal homografts with subsequent development of homograft tolerance. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 1963. 117. 385-395.
30. Meier-Kriesche H.U., Schold J.D., Kaplan B. Long-term renal allograft survival: have we made significant progress or is it time to rethink our analytic and therapeutic strategies? Am. J. Transplant. 2004. 4. 1289-1295.
31. Womer K.L., Kaplan B. Recent developments in kidney transplantation — a critical assessment. Am. J. Transplant. 2009. 9. 1265-1271.
32. Markmann J. Immunosuppression with antithymocyte globulin, rituximab, tacrolimus, and sirolimus, followed by withdrawal of tacrolimus and sirolimus, in living-donor renal transplant recipients. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01318915. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine. 2011.
33. Magliocca J. F., Knechtle S.J. The evolving role of alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) for immunosuppressive therapy in organ transplantation. Transpl. Int. 2006. 19. 705-714.
34. Knechtle S.J., Pirsch J.D., Fechner J.H. Jr, Becker B.N., Friedl A., Colvin R.B., Lebeck L.K., Chin L.T., Becker Y.T., Odorico J.S., D’Alessandro A.M., Kalayoglu M., Hamawy M.M., Hu H., Bloom D. D., Sollinger H.W. Campath-1H induction plus rapamycin monotherapy for renal transplantation: results of a pilot study. Am. J. Transplant. 2003. 3. 722-730.
35. Pearl J.P., Parris J., Hale D.A., Hoffmann S.C., Bernstein W.B., Mccoy K.L., Swanson S.J., Mannon R.B., Roederer M., Kirk A.D. Immunocompetent T-cells with a memory-like phenotype are the dominant cell type following antibody-mediated T-cell depletion. Am. J. Transplant. 2005. 5. 465-474.
36. Trzonkowski P., Zilvetti M., Chapman S., Wieckiewicz J., Sutherland A., Friend P., Wood K.J. Homeostatic repopulation by CD28-CD8+ T cells in alemtuzumab-depleted kidney transplant recipients treated with reduced immunosuppression. Am. J. Transplant. 2008. 8. 338-347.
37. Bloom D., Chang Z., Pauly K., Kwun J., Fechner J., Hayes C., Samaniego M., Knechtle S. BAFF is increased in renal transplant patients following treatment with alemtuzumab. Am. J. Transplant. 2009. 9. 1835-1845.
38. Thompson S.A., Jones J.L., Cox A.L., Compston D.A., Coles A.J. B-cell reconstitution and BAFF after alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) treatment of multiple sclerosis. J. Clin. Immunol. 2010. 30. 99-105.
39. Redfield R.R. III, Rodriguez E., Parsons R., Vivek K., Mustafa M.M., Noorchashm H., Naji A. Essential role for B cells in transplantation tolerance. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2011. 23. 685-691.
40. Newell K.A., Asare A., Kirk A.D., Gisler T.D., Bourcier K., Suthanthiran M., Burlingham W.J., Marks W.H., Sanz I., Lechler R.I., Hernandez-Fuentes M.P., Turka L.A., Seyfert-Margo–lis V.L. Identification of a B cell signature associated with renal transplant tolerance in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 2010. 120. 1836-1847.
41. Eng H.S., Bennett G., Tsiopelas E., Lake M., Humphreys I., Chang S.H., Coates P.T., Russ G.R. Anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies detected in positive B-cell crossmatches by Luminex predict late graft loss. Am. J. Transplant. 2008. 8. 2335-2342.
42. Lefaucheur C., Suberbielle-Boissel C., Hill G.S., Nochy D., Andrade J., Antoine C., Gautreau C., Charron D., Glotz D. Clinical relevance of preformed HLA donor-specific antibodies in kidney transplantation. Am. J. Transplant. 2008. 8. 324-331.
43. Terasaki P.I., Cai J. Human leukocyte antigen antibodies and chronic rejection: from association to causation. Transplantation. 2008. 86. 377-383.
44. Lee P.C., Zhu L., Terasaki P.I., Everly M.J. HLA-specific antibodies developed in the first year posttransplant are predictive of chronic rejection and renal graft loss. Transplantation. 2009. 88. 568-574.
45. Liu C., Noorchashm H., Sutter J.A., Naji M., Prak E.L., Boyer J., Green T., Rickels M.R., Tomaszewski J.E., Koeberlein B., Wang Z., Paessler M.E., Velidedeoglu E., Rostami S.Y., Yu M., Barker C.F., Naji A. B lymphocyte-directed immunotherapy promotes long-term islet allograft survival in nonhuman primates. Nat. Med. 2007. 13. 1295-1298.
46. Schneider P., Mackay F., Steiner V., Hofmann K., Bodmer J. L., Holler N., Ambrose C., Lawton P., Bixler S., Acha-Orbea H., Valmori D., Romero P., Werner-Favre C., Zubler R.H., Browning J.L., Tschopp J. BAFF, a novel ligand of the tumor necrosis factor family, stimulates B cell growth. J. Exp. Med. 1999. 189. 1747-1756.
47. Mackay F., Schneider P., Rennert P., Browning J. BAFF AND APRIL: a tutorial on B cell survival. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 2003. 21. 231-264.
48. Xu H., He X., Liu Q., Shi D., Chen Y., Zhu Y., Zhang X. Abnormal high expression of B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF superfamily (BAFF) associated with long-term outcome in kidney transplant recipients. Transplant. Proc. 2009a. 41. 1552-1556.
49. Zarkhin V., Li L., Sarwal M.M. BAFF may modulate the rate of B-cell repopulation after rituximab therapy for acute renal transplant rejection. Transplantation. 2009. 88. 1229-1230.
50. Vivek K., Parsons R., Rostami S.Y., Mustafa M.M., Rodriguez E., Redfield R.R., Luo Y., Ziaie A. S., Migone T.S., Cancro M.P., Naji A., Noorchashm H. BLyS-directed immunotherapy purges alloreactive specificities from the primary B-cell repertoire and promotes humoral transplantation tolerance. Am. J. Transplant. 2011. 11. 171 (Abstract #470).
51. Jenkins M.K., Schwartz R.H. Antigen presentation by chemically modified splenocytes induces antigen-specific T cell unresponsiveness in vitro and in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 1987. 165. 302-319.
52. Munn D.H., Sharma M.D., Mellor A.L. Ligation of B7-1/B7-2 by human CD4+ T cells triggers indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 2004. 172. 4100-4110.
53. Larsen C.P., Pearson T.C., Adams A.B., Tso P., Shirasugi N., Strobert E., Anderson D., Cowan S., Price K., Naemura J., Emswi–ler J., Greene J., Turk L.A., Bajorath J., Townsend R., Hagerty D., Linsley P. S., Peach R.J. Rational development of LEA29Y (belatacept), a high-affinity variant of CTLA4-Ig with potent immunosuppressive properties. Am. J. Transplant. 2005. 5. 443-453.
54. Larsen C.P., Grinyo J., Medina-Pestana J., Vanrenterghem Y., Vincenti F., Breshahan B., Campistol J. M., Florman S., Rial Mdel C., Kamar N., Block A., Di Russo G., Lin C.S., Garg P., Charpentier B. Belatacept-based regimens versus a cyclosporine A-based regimen in kidney transplant recipients: 2-year results from the BENEFIT and BENEFIT-EXT studies. Transplantation. 2010. 90. 1528-1535.
55. Vanrenterghem Y., Bresnahan B., Campistol J., Durrbach A., Grinyo J., Neumayer H.H., Lang P., Larsen C.P., Mancilla-Urrea E., Pestana J.M., Block A., Duan T., Glicklich A., Gujrathi S., Vincenti F. Belatacept-based regimens are associated with improved cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors compared with cyclosporine in kidney transplant recipients (BENEFIT and BENEFIT-EXT studies). Transplantation. 2011. 91. 976-983.
56. Pestana J.O., Grinyo J.M., Vanrenterghem Y., Becker T., Campistol J.M., Florman S., Garcia V.D., Kamar N., Lang P., Manfro R.C., Massari P., Rial M.D., Schnitzler M.A., Vitko S., Duan T., Block A., Harler M.B., Durrbach A. Three-year outcomes from –BENEFIT-EXT: a phase III study of Belatacept versus cyclosporine in recipients of extended criteria donor kidneys. Am. J. Transplant. 2012. 12. 630-639.
57. Thomson A.W., Turnquist H.R., Zahorchak A.F., Raimondi G. Tolerogenic dendritic cell-regulatory T-cell interaction and the promotion of transplant tolerance. Transplantation. 2009. 87. S86-90.
58. Fujita S., Sato Y., Sato K., Eizumi K., Fukaya T., Kubo M., Yamashita N. Regulatory dendritic cells protect against cutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease mediated through CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Blood. 2007. 110. 3793-3803.
59. Boks M.A., Kager-Groenland J.R., Haasjes M.S., Zwaginga J.J., Van Ham S.M., Ten Brinke A. IL-10-generated tolerogenic dendritic cells are optimal for functional regulatory T cell induction – a comparative study of human clinical-applicable DC. Clin. Immunol. 2012. 142. 332-342.
60. Brem-Exner B.G., Sattler C., Hutchinson J.A., Koehl G.E., Kronenberg K., Farkas S., Inoue S., Blank C., Knechtle S.J., Schlitt H.J., Fandrich F., Geissler E.K. Macrophages driven to a novel state of activation have anti-inflammatory properties in mice. J. Immunol. 2008. 180. 335-349.
61. Singer N.G., Caplan A.I. Mesenchymal stem cells: mechanisms of inflammation. Ann. Rev. Pathol. 2011. 6. 457-478.
62. Karlsson H., Erkers T., Nava S., Ruhm S., Westgren M., Ringden O. Stromal cells from term fetal membrane are highly suppressive in allogeneic settings in vitro. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2012. 167. 543-555.
63. Duijvestein M., Molendijk I., Roelofs H., Vos A.C., Verhaar A.P., Reinders M.E., Fibbe W.E., Verspaget H.W., Van Den Brink G.R., Wildenberg M.E., Hommes D.W. Mesenchymal stromal cell function is not affected by drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Cytotherapy. 2011. 13. 1066-1073.
64. Jankowski R.A., Ildstad S.T. Chimerism and tolerance: from freemartin cattle and neonatal mice to humans. Hum. Immunol. 1997. 52. 155-161.
65. Sachs D.H., Sykes M., Kawai T., Cosimi A.B. Immuno-intervention for the induction of transplantation tolerance through mixed chimerism. Semin. Immunol. 2011. 23. 165-173.
66. Ildstad S.T., Sachs D.H. Reconstitution with syngeneic plus allogeneic or xenogeneic bone marrow leads to specific acceptance of allografts or xenografts. Nature. 1984. 307. 168-170.
67. Sharabi Y., Sachs D.H. Mixed chimerism and permanent specific transplantation tolerance induced by a nonlethal preparative regimen. J. Exp. Med. 1989. 169. 493-502.
68. Kaufman C.L., Ildstad S.T. Induction of donor-specific tolerance by transplantation of bone marrow. Ther. Immunol. 1994. 1. 101-111.
69. Kawai T., Cosimi A.B., Spitzer T.R., Tolkoff-Rubin N., Suthanthiran M., Saidman S.L., Shaffer J., Preffer F.I., Ding R., Sharma V., Fishman J.A., Dey B., Ko D.S., Hertl M., Goes N.B., Wong W., Williams W.W. Jr., Colvin R.B., Sykes M., Sachs D.H. HLA-mismatched renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression. N. Engl. J. Med. 2008. 358. 353-361.
70. Sachs D.H., Sykes M., Kawai T., Cosimi A.B. Immuno-intervention for the induction of transplantation tolerance through mixed chimerism. Semin. Immunol. 2011. 23. 165-173.
71. Spitzer T.R., Sykes M., Tolkoff-Rubin N., Kawai T., Mcafee S.L., Dey B.R., Ballen K., Delmonico F., Saidman S., Sachs D.H., Cosimi A.B. Long-term follow-up of recipients of combined human leukocyte antigen-matched bone marrow and kidney transplantation for multiple myeloma with end-stage renal disease. Transplantation. 2011. 91. 672-676.
72. Newell K.A., Asare A., Kirk A.D., Gisler T.D., Bourcier K., Suthanthiran M. et al. Identification of a B cell signature associated with renal transplant tolerance in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 2010 May 24. 120(6). 1836-47. 
73. Sagoo P., Perucha E., Sawitzki B., Tomiuk S., Stephens D.A., Miqueu P. et al. Development of a cross-platform biomarker signature to detect renal transplant tolerance in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 2010 May 24. 120(6). 1848-61. 
74. Newell K.A., Asare A., Kirk A.D., Gisler T.D., Bourcier K., Suthanthiran M. et al. Identification of a B cell signature associated with renal transplant tolerance in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 2010 May 24. 120(6). 1836-47
75. Louis S., Braudeau C., Giral M., Dupont A., Moizant F., Robillard N. et al. Contrasting CD25hiCD4+T cells/FOXP3 patterns in chronic rejection and operational drug-free tolerance. Transplantation. 2006 Feb 15. 81(3). 398-407.
76. Pallier A., Hillion S., Danger R., Giral M., Racape M., Degauque N. et al. Patients with drug-free long-term graft function display increased numbers of peripheral B cells with a memory and inhibitory phenotype. Kidney Int. 2010 Jun 9. 78(5). 503-13.
77. Zarkhin V., Lovelace P.A., Li L., Hsieh S.C., Sarwal M.M. Phenotypic evaluation of B-cell subsets after rituximab for treatment of acute renal allograft rejection in pediatric recipients. Transplantation. 2011 May 15. 91(9). 1010-8.
78. Baeten D., Louis S., Braud C., Braudeau C., Ballet C., Moizant F. et al. Phenotypically and functionally distinct CD8+ lymphocyte populations in long-term drug-free tolerance and chronic rejection in human kidney graft recipients. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2006 Jan. 17(1). 294-304.
79. Brouard S., Mansfield E., Braud C., Li L., Giral M., Hsieh S.C. et al. Identification of a peripheral blood transcriptional biomarker panel associated with operational renal allograft tolerance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 25. 104(39). 15448-53.
80. Kawai T., Cosimi A.B., Spitzer T.R., Tolkoff-Rubin N., Suthanthiran M., Saidman S.L. et al. HLA-mismatched renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression. N. Engl. J. Med. 2008 Jan 24. 358(4). 353-61.
81. Calne R., Friend P., Moffatt S., Bradley A., Hale G., Firth J. et al. Prope tolerance, perioperative campath 1H, and low-dose cyclosporin monotherapy in renal allograft recipients. Lancet. 1998 Jun 6. 351(9117). 1701-2.
82. Calne R., Watson C.J. Some observations on prope tolerance. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. 2011 Aug 16. 16(4). 353-8.
83. Perry D.K., Burns J.M., Pollinger H.S., Amiot B.P., Gloor J.M., Gores G.J. et al. Proteasome inhibition causes apoptosis of normal human plasma cells preventing alloantibody production. Am. J. Transplant. 2009 Jan. 9(1). 201-9.
84. Heidt S., Roelen D.L., Vergunst M., Doxiadis I.I., Claas F.H., Mulder A. Bortezomib affects the function of human B cells: possible implications for desensitization protocols. Clin. Transpl. 2009. 387-92.

Back to issue